2020年2月22日 星期六

如何用 know 才準確?

今天筆者想談談 know 這個單詞,一個看似簡單的詞,但實際用法卻經常考倒不少人。

1. I know him.
2. I know of him.
3. I know about him.

首先,說 I know him 是指你本身認識他這個人,這句暗地裡就是 I know him (personally),所以你們應該是朋友或泛泛之交。如果想表達認識對方多年了,可以說:
We’ve known each other for many years.(我們彼此認識很多年了。)
We’ve known each other since 1992.(自 1992 年以來我們就認識對方了。)

再來 I know of him,這句意思相當於 I’ve heard of him,表示你聽聞過他這個人或知道對方的存在,但你們是互不相識的。由於 know of 並不是表示交往的朋友,很少用於友情上,通常會用來詢問「知不知道…」、「有沒有聽聞…」、例如:
Do you know of a good dentist?(你有沒有好的牙醫可以介紹?)
Do you know of any good restaurants around here?(你知道這兒附近有甚麼好的餐廳嗎?)
解答上句,如果說 I know a good Japanese restaurant around here,意思是你親自光顧過而認為很好的日式餐廳,但如果說 I know of a good Japanese restaurant around here,意思是你聽聞過有家很好的日式餐廳,但你本人並沒光顧過。

接下來到 I know about him,這句也隱含你可能不認識他本人,但與 know of 的差別在於 know about 是表示你很清楚了解或熟悉他這個人,例如外國人可以說 We all know about Bruce Lee,因為李小龍實在太出名,連外國人都清楚知道他的來歷,但當然他們與李小龍是素未謀面。又例如說 I’ve known him since secondary school, but I don’t really know about him,意思是「我從中學開始認識他了,但我不太了解他的為人」。know about 也常用來表示是否懂得某種技能,例如:
Do you know about graphic design?(你懂平面設計嗎?)
I know nothing about gardening.(我對園藝一無所知。)

最後想特別提一提,很多人經常誤用 know 來表示「認識」,因為 know 跟中文的「認識」並不是完全相等,例如你想表達跟丈夫初次認識,不能說 I knew my husband in England,英語一般會用 meet,所以應該是 I met my husband in England。英語的 know 隱含的意思是「處於已經相識的狀態」,是一個 stative verb(狀態動詞),所以通常會說 We’ve known each other for a long time(我們相識已久),又或 I know you very well,表示「我很了解你(因為我和你是老友)」。如果你想表達結交更多不同國家的人,不能說 I want to know more people from different countries,這個也是很多人寫英文會犯錯的地方,因為這裡隱含「認識的過程」,英語會用 get to know,所以應該要說 I want to get to know more people from different countries。再舉兩個例子:
She’s very easy-going when you get to know her.(當你逐漸認識她後,會知道她很隨和。)
We got to know each other when we worked on a research project together.(我們共同參與某個研究計劃後,才真正認識對方。)

2020年2月11日 星期二



asymptomatic (adj): 無症狀的
People who contract the Wuhan coronavirus could be asymptomatic for a few days and not even know they have the virus.感染武漢冠狀病毒的人可能幾天都沒有症狀,他們甚至不知道自己帶有病毒。

ground zero (n): 原爆點,重災區
As the inner workings of the Chinese Communist Party are opaque, observers are weighing why the President has not been to ground zero or playing up his role in managing the crisis.(因中國共產黨的內部工作並不透明,因此觀察員正在衡量國家主席為何沒有到訪災區現場或發揮其處理危機的作用。)

incubation period (n): 潛伏期
New research found that the incubation period for the virus was as long as 24 days rather than the previously believed 14 days.(新研究發現,病毒的潛伏期長達 24 天,而不是之前認為的 14 天。)

lockdown (n): 封鎖,封關,封城
Wuhan has been under lockdown for weeks after it was identified as the epicentre of a deadly coronavirus outbreak.當被確定為致命冠狀病毒爆發的源頭之後,武漢已經被封鎖了幾個星期。

panic buying (n): 搶購,恐慌性購買
Hong Kong has been hit by a wave of panic buying with supermarket shelves frequently emptied of staple goods such as toilet paper, hand sanitizer, rice and pasta.香港受到一股瘋狂搶購的衝擊,超市貨架上的主要用品如衛生紙、洗手液、米、麵條等經常被一掃而空。

stockpile (n): 大量儲備,囤積
The authorities urged people not to stockpile food, as some stores ran out of meat, vegetables and instant noodles.當局敦促人們不要囤積食物,因為一些商店的肉、蔬菜和即食麵都缺貨了。

whistle-blower (n): 告發者,告密者
The death of Dr Li Wenliang, the whistle-blower who first raised the alarm about the coronavirus outbreak, has sparked public anger in China.(曾率先告發冠狀病毒爆發的李文亮醫生,他的去世在中國引起了公憤。)

zoonotic (adj): 由動物傳染的
When zoonotic diseases jump to humans, they can be far more deadly than they are in their animal host because they have adapted to that animal’s immune system.(當由動物傳染的疾病傳播給人類時,它們的致命性會遠比其在動物宿主時為高,因為它們已經適應了該動物的免疫系統。)