2017年11月4日 星期六

subject to vs subjected to

subject 作為名詞大家都很熟悉,但 subject 還可以用作形容詞和動詞,後面通常接 to,相信大家都見過 subject to subjected to,很多人都會混淆兩者的用法,其實兩者的分別還是明顯的。

subject to subject 沒有變形,所以這個 subject 是形容詞,而 subject to 的意思是指「可能受到…影響」(likely to be affected by),一般都是不好的影響,可以是人為因素或無法控制的天然因素,而且所指的事還未發生,所以是一種假設或預測,例如:
The schedule is tentative and subject to change.(日程安排是暫定的,可能會改變。)
Flights are subject to delay because of dense fog.(因濃霧關係,航班可能延誤。)
Smokers are more subject to heart attacks than non-smokers.(吸煙者比非吸煙者更容易患心臟病。)

此外,subject to 的另一個意思是「取決於…情況而定」,這個用法跟大家常見的 depending on 差不多,例如:
The funding is subject to approval by the Education Bureau.(那筆經費須經教育局批准。)
Goods will be sent out within 14 days, subject to availability.(貨物將於 14 天內送出,視乎供應情況而定。)

至於 subjected to subject 是動詞,原來的形式是 subject sb/sth to,但因為這個意思經常用於被動式,才出現 subjected to,所以容易與 subject to 混淆。subjected to 的意思是「遭受…的經歷、待遇等」,一般是人為的因素,而且所指的事相當負面,例如:
The prisoners were subjected to torture.(囚犯受到嚴刑拷打。)
The city was subjected to heavy bombing.(這座城市遭到猛烈轟炸。)
At the airport I was subjected to a humiliating search.(在機場,我受到了侮辱性的搜查。)
The investigation found that many workers had been subjected to unfair treatment.(調查發現很多工人曾受過不公平的待遇。)

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